Located in the central Himalayas range, Nepal is prone to a number of natural hazards due to the geophysical structure upon which it is situated and this is variable from region to region. The fragile geophysical structure, very high relief, high angle of slopes, complex geology, variable climatic conditions, active tectonic processes, unplanned settlement, dense and increasing population, poor economic condition, and low literacy rate have made Nepal vulnerable to various types of disaster (ADRC, 1999). In addition, most of the country is seismically active. High-intensity rainfall during the monsoon exposes the populations of Nepal to high levels of flooding and frequent landslides. Nepal is considered to be one of the most flood-prone areas in the world.
It is because of these complexities that the government alongside various agencies have been working together from a reactive to a proactive approach to disaster management, in order to improve the mitigation response and preparedness to disaster across the country.
The government of Nepal has committed to the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015 – 2030 (SFDRR, 2015) at the United Nations World Conference to improve efforts in disaster risk reduction, to increase understanding of the risks to disaster, build the capacity of populations to reduce the loss of life, infrastructure, assets, and economy.